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Output hypothesis An A-Z of ELT

Swain comprehensible output hypothesis

Our findings also support the claim that more obtrusive input in which target structures are more salient to learners has more positive effects on L2 development than just exposing learners to more tokens. The very small effect size found (d -0.26 compelled the researchers to conclude that L2 learners in their database barely outperformed other learners who were exposed to the same unenhanced input. Thus, they called for more empirical research in future in order to draw more valid and confident conclusions on textual enhancement efficacy. A number of other studies also investigated the effects of enriched. 4-5). The interest in focus on form instruction (also known as form-focused instruction) was raised in 1990s as a result of research findings that suggested that exposure to input alone though necessary is. PI is composed of two main stages: Explicit information stage providing an explanation regarding target structure. Structured input activities aimed at pushing learners away from inefficient and incorrect processing strategies (VanPatten, 1996, 2004. The results of grammaticality judgment, multiple choice grammar, and written production tests administered as pre-test, immediate and delayed post-tests suggested that both input-based and output-based instruction can lead to the development of L2. As a result, it isnt clear whether any positive effect of textual enhancement is the result of textual manipulation of the input or the recurrence of target forms as input enrichment.
for a <u>output</u> detailed <em>comprehensible</em> description <em>hypothesis</em> of <em>comprehensible</em> <i>output</i> PI <i>swain</i> <u>comprehensible</u> see Wong, 2004a, 2004b.) Another way to <u>output</u> implement <em>swain</em> input-based <i>output</i> instruction <i>comprehensible</i> more <i>output</i> <i>comprehensible</i> pertinent to the <u>hypothesis</u> study <strong>swain</strong> <i>swain</i> is <strong>output</strong> <em>output</em> to manipulate the input <u>hypothesis</u> in some way in order <strong>hypothesis</strong> to make. 6908

More specifically, there are studies that suggest that the role of output is secondary to the role of input and output merely facilitates access to an already developed L2 system (e.g., Benati, 2001;.

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Swain comprehensible output hypothesis
Furthermore, several studies reported unfavorable effects of textual enhancement on learners reading comprehension scores (e.g., Lee, 2007; Loew, et al., 2003; Overstreet, 1998). In a meta-analytic review of 16 previous textual enhancement studies.
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